The trumpet is often confused with its close relative the cornet , which has a more conical tubing shape compared to the trumpet's more cylindrical tube. This, along with additional bends in the cornet's tubing, gives the cornet a slightly mellower tone, but the instruments are otherwise nearly identical. They have the same length of tubing and, therefore, the same pitch, so music written for cornet and trumpet is interchangeable.
Another relative, the flugelhorn , has tubing that is even more conical than that of the cornet, and an even richer tone. It is sometimes augmented with a fourth valve to improve the intonation of some lower notes.
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On any modern trumpet, cornet, or flugelhorn, pressing the valves indicated by the numbers below produces the written notes shown. The sounding pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument.
Engaging the fourth valve, if present, usually drops any of these pitches by a perfect fourth as well. Within each overtone series, the different pitches are attained by changing the embouchure. Each overtone series on the trumpet begins with the first overtone—the fundamental of each overtone series cannot be produced except as a pedal tone. Notes in parentheses are the sixth overtone, representing a pitch with a frequency of seven times that of the fundamental; while this pitch is close to the note shown, it is slightly flat relative to equal temperament , and use of those fingerings is generally avoided.
The fingering schema arises from the length of each valve's tubing a longer tube produces a lower pitch. Valve "1" increases the tubing length enough to lower the pitch by one whole step, valve "2" by one half step, and valve "3" by one and a half steps. This scheme and the nature of the overtone series create the possibility of alternate fingerings for certain notes.
For example, third-space "C" can be produced with no valves engaged standard fingering or with valves 2—3. Alternate fingerings may be used to improve facility in certain passages, or to aid in intonation. Extending the third valve slide when using the fingerings 1—3 or further lowers the pitch slightly to improve intonation. Various types of mutes can be used to alter the sound of the instrument when placed in or over the bell.
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While most types of mutes do decrease the volume the instrument produces, as the name implies, the sound modification is typically the primary reason for their use. Traditional trumpet repertoire rarely calls for notes beyond this range, and the fingering tables of most method books peak at the high C , two octaves above middle C. The trumpeter rolls the tip of the tongue to produce a 'growling like' tone. It is achieved as if one were rolling an R in the Spanish language.
This technique is widely employed by composers like Berio and Stockhausen. Simultaneously playing tone while using the back of the tongue to vibrate the uvula creating a distinct sound.
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Most trumpet players will use a plunger with this technique to achieve a particular sound heard in a lot of Chicago Jazz of the s. The player articulates using the syllables ta-ka ta-ka ta-ka. The same as double tonguing, but with the syllables ta-ta-ka ta-ta-ka ta-ta-ka or ta-ka-ta ta-ka-ta. The trumpeter tongues as if saying the word doodle. This is a very faint tonguing similar in sound to a valve tremolo. Trumpeters can slide between notes by depressing the valves halfway and changing the lip tension.
Modern repertoire makes extensive use of this technique. This way you can see exactly where you were in life at the time and can also help you to see where the gaps are.
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