Guide Reflection in Learning and Professional Development: Theory and Practice

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Reflection in learning and professional development by Jennifer A. Moon Print book only.


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The reflective pratitioner: how professionals think in action by Donald Schon Print book only. Educating the reflective practitioner by Donald Schon Print book only. Learning Models Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning The work of Chris Argyris has influenced thinking about the relationship of people and organizations, organizational learning and action research. Here we examine some key aspects of his thinking.

Getting started with Reflective Practice

Donald Schon: learning, reflection and change Donald Schon made a remarkable contribution to our understanding of the theory and practice of learning. Books: Reflective and Experiential Learning A selection of titles available:. The action learning handbook: powerful techniques for education, professional development and training by Ian McGill e-book and printed book available. Experiential learning: a best practice handbook for educators and trainers by Colin Beard and John P Wilson e-book and printed book available. Facilitating reflective learning through mentoring and coaching by Anne Brockbank and Ian McGill e-book and printed book available.

Organizing reflection by Michael Reynolds and Russ Vince e-book and printed book available. You carry out reflection-on-action outside the classroom, where you consider the situation again. This requires deeper thought, for example, as to why the students did not understand the topic.


  1. Reflection in Learning and Professional Development : Theory and Practice.
  2. Menschen mit Behinderung und sozio-ökonomische Bedingungen (German Edition).
  3. Jezebel.
  4. It encourages you to consider causes and options, which should be informed by a wider network of understanding from research. By following any of the above models of reflection, you will have a questioning approach to teaching. You will consider why things are as they are, and how they could be. You will consider the strengths and areas of development in your own practice, questioning why learning experiences might be this way and considering how to develop them.

    As a result, what you do in the classroom will be carefully planned, informed by research and previous experience, and focused, with logical reasons. All of these models stress the importance of repeating the cycle to make sure knowledge is secure and progression is continued. The reflections you make will directly affect the next lesson or block of teaching as you plan to rework and reteach ideas.

    Ask yourself: What did not work? How can I adapt this idea for next time? This might mean redesigning a task, changing from group to paired work or reordering the lesson. You should be reflecting on things as they happen in the classroom. Ask yourself: What is working well? What are the students struggling with? Do the students fully understand my instructions? If not, why not?

    Reflection in Learning and Professional Development: Theory and Practice

    Do the students fully understand the task? Do your students ultimately understand what success looks like in the task or activity? Can they express this for themselves? You will reteach and reassess the lessons you have taught, and this will allow students the chance to gain new skills and strengthen learning. Creating evaluation models will help you to know whether the actions you have taken have had the intended effect. You should plan to draw on your own strengths and the best practice of colleagues, which you then apply to your own teaching.

    Try any of the reflection models listed in this unit to help you progress. By getting involved in a supportive network everyone will develop. You can draw on the support of colleagues by asking them to observe and give feedback. You can also draw on student feedback. Reflection should trigger discussion and co-operation. As a reflective practitioner you will continuously review the learning process to make sure all students make maximum progress.

    While working through this document you may have identified a model which appeals to you. As well as using a model of reflection, you can carry out other reflective activities to develop your practice. These can include the following. Self-questioning Asking yourself questions can help you understand the effect and efficiency of your teaching. Experimenting with new ideas Trying out new methods or approaches in the classroom can create new learning opportunities.

    These changes can be as simple as varying a small activity or as adventurous as changing your whole approach or plan. Discussing with students Drawing on student feedback will make sure your reflections are focused on your students. By reflecting with students, you allow them to play an active part in their learning and gain insight into what needs to improve to support student development. Observing your colleagues can also provide new ideas and approaches which you can try in your own practice.

    What is Reflective Practice?

    Listen to these educators talking about how they reflect. How could you use their techniques in your practice? These are sometimes referred to as the five Rs. Reacting How will I decide what area of my practice I need to focus on? Recording logging your reflections How will I assess my performance? Will this take the form of an observation, discussion or shared planning? How will I log this? What documents will you use to record your reflections? For example, a journal, notebook or form provided by your school or institution.

    When will I log this?

    Getting started with Reflective Practice

    Will your reflections be logged straight after the lesson, during or before the lesson? How often will you record these reflections? Reviewing understanding your current teaching methods What worked well and how do I know this? Consider what the students really understood and enjoyed about the lesson, and why. How do you know improvements have been made? What did not work as planned? Consider what the students did not get involved with or find challenging, and why. What could I try next time? How could you adapt the activity? Some practical ideas include introducing a different task, clearer instructions, time-based activities and activities which appeal to different learning styles.

    Revising adapting your teaching by trying new strategies What will I change or adapt? This could be a whole task or something specific about a task. Some practical ideas include changing the task from independent work to paired work, adding a scaffold to a challenging task, providing instructions step by step, and making activities time based. Reworking action plan of how you can put these ideas in place in a practical way How will I put this in place? Consider what will you need to do before and during the lesson to make sure your changes happen.

    What will the students be doing differently to make sure they make progress? What materials do I need? What things will you need to put your revised ideas into practice? Some practical examples include coloured pens, larger paper, handouts, cut-up activities, specialised equipment. Reassessing understanding how these new strategies affected learning How successful were the new strategies? Once you have redelivered the lesson, consider how engaged the students were.

    How well did they understand this time? What changed? Consider the following areas of potential change: delivery, planning and assessment. Learning journal What is it? A learning journal is a collection of notes, observations, thoughts and other relevant materials built up over a period of time and recorded together. What happens? After each lesson you record your thoughts and feelings regarding the lesson.


    • Beyond Justice.
    • Glossary and references.
    • Reflection in Learning and Professional Development | Theory and Practice | Taylor & Francis Group.
    • Learning Models.
    • Reflective practice.

    Use the five Rs in the Checklist section to help focus your journal. Lesson evaluations What are they?

    Evaluations require you to think back on the lesson, assessing its strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for development. How do I know?

    Bibliographic Information

    Once you have taught your lesson, record your reflections on the lesson as soon as possible. Observations What are they? Observations are when someone assesses your practice through watching it in action. These observations should have a very specific focus, for example the quality of questioning or the quality of student-led activities. This focus can then be specific, measured, reflected upon and revised to make sure your students make progress.

    Once you have set the specific focus or target area, a colleague will watch you deliver the lesson and give feedback on the strengths of your practice or some possible ideas for development.