During the diner I shall give a mini conference on one of our French authors and then we will discuss the subject in a convivial way. In the end I will serve coffe and… read more. Reservation pour 4 personnes maximum. The meal includes an aperitif, wine and light drinks. For those who love French Litterature , I propose a diner at home cooked by me , referring to special dishes around litterature , including a mini conference and a talk during the meal, around the subject.
Cosas que debes tener en cuenta. Puedes cancelar cualquier experiencia y recibir un reembolso total durante las 24 horas siguientes a la compra. Requisitos para los viajeros. This system of theatrical democratization contributed to achieving greater excellence in each and every one of the roles interpreted in the work, fostering group cohesion and ultimately the improved quality of the company. The French performer disguised his individuality behind the character, whereas the British actor subjected the character, and the group, to his own personal characteristics.
The result of a fierce star system in which individual celebrity was opposed to the group, Great Britain advocated a theatre dominated by artists of the ilk of Henry Irving, whereas the French system focused more on the ensemble instead of the isolated figure. The internal discipline required the actor to comply with the institution that had furnished his fame. Needless to say, not everyone strictly adhered to the norms, with Sarah Bernhardt causing the most ink to be spilled due to her multiple affronts to the troupe. During the season, her private performances, eccentricities, and notable absences from the billboard reflected an exaggerated individuality that would later materialize in her abandonment of the company in search of individual recognition and financial gain.
Because of its syntactic and phonetic difficulty, its links to the rarefied literary realm embodied by the classics of the 17th century, and its ascendant aesthetic among Victorian elites, French became the expression of an intellectual aristocracy. To be able to attend—and appreciate—a theatrical production entirely in French was hence synonymous with cultivation. That the spectators belonged to the elite neutralized the dangerous charge of the works selected. Simultaneously, the fact that the performance was produced entirely in French certainly helped ameliorate the risk associated with its message.
The British public largely concentrated on the melody over the words, either because of the pleasure of the musicality of the French language or because of its incapacity to understand the textual significance of the works, thus dissipating the danger. The symbolism acquired by French as the language of the theatre triggered an inevitable comparison with domestic theatre in English.
French became a language of culture and privilege, linked to exquisite interpretation and a company of actors that defined a nation whose style would become the artistic epitome of the Western world.
French became a mark of quality by which to measure both English language and national theatre. In French, how quickly, how neatly, how gracefully you can say just what you want to say to your interlocutor! English cannot be phrased as rapidly as French. But I have heard foreign actors, playing in the English tongue, show us this rapidity, this warmth, this fury.
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In addition to voice and language, the expressive naturalness on the stage—understood as a technique learned through years of study at the Conservatoire —highlighted the movements of the French actors. This perfection of control over the body, this domain over expressive mechanisms, the submission of the organic to the interpretation, was constantly applauded by the profession in England. The myth created around the company, whose significance was, in reality, understood by a privileged few, demonstrated how theatrical sensibility was sublimated into erudition and social status.
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More of a trend created through advertising than a dramatic ideal that could be decoded by the average spectator, it was social and cultural elites who forged the legend of French as synonymous with elegance and the intellectual aristocracy. The French troupe set the road map for the development of a national English theatre in terms of its internal structure and the weight of tradition, of a repertoire and a conservatoire as paradigmatic constitutive elements of a national identity forged through the dramatic arts.
Multiple attacks on it and commercial speculation, in addition to the personal interests of actors—primarily Bernhardt and Coquelin, who abandoned the troupe to pursue solo careers—threatened to discredit the institution and convert it into merely another troupe, sullied by the same financial problems as the rest of the profession. Several commentators proclaimed fatigue regarding the repeated need for comparisons with France, and others scorned the work of the Conservatoire , including Edward F.
Arnold, Matthew. Vol IX. Mr and Mrs Bancroft on and off Stage.
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Written by Themselves. With Portraits. London: Richard Bentley and Son, Booth , Michael R. Theatre in the Victorian Age. Cambridge: CUP, Collini , Stefan. Oxford: Clarendon Press, De Bury , Yetta Blaze. Filon , Augustin. Foulkes , Richard. Theatre Notebook Galdemar , Ange. Got , Edmond.
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Paris: Plon, Guest , Kristen. Journal of Victorian Culture Henley , W. Hollingshead , John. Gaiety Chronicles. London: Archibald Constable and Co. Irving , Henry. Theatre, Culture and Society. Essays, Addresses and Lectures. Keele: Keele UP, Imre , Zoltan. New Theatre Quarterly Nisbet , J. James , Henry. The Scenic Art. London: Hart-Davis, Kruger , Loren. The National Stage. Pollock , Juliet.
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Powell , Kerry. Women and Victorian Theatre. Spence , Edward. Strobel , A. Terry , Ellen. London: Gollanz, Tree , Herbert B.
Around Theatres. Vandam , Albert. Wedmore , Frederick. Woodfield , James. English Theatre in Transition London: Routledge, Aberdeen Weekly Journal. Glasgow Herald. Musical World. Pall Mall Gazette. The Era. The Saturday Review , 25 August — The Saturday Review. The Times. His research focuses on nineteenth-century European drama and popular culture. A Fulbright visiting scholar at the Martin E. Bibliographie Arnold, Matthew. All the Year Around. Liverpool Mercury.